Article on Cricket Umpire
An umpire in cricket (from the Old French Nompere meaning not equal, i.e. not a member of one of the teams, impartial) is a person who has the authority to make decisions on the cricket field, according to the Laws of Cricket. Besides making decisions about legality of delivery, appeals for wickets and general conduct of the game in legal manner, the umpire also keeps a record of the deliveries and announces the completion of an over.
A cricket umpire is not to be confused with the referee who usually presides over only international matches and makes no decisions affecting the outcome of the game.
Traditionally, cricket matches have two umpires on the field, one standing at the end where the bowler delivers the ball (Bowler's end), and one directly opposite the facing batsman (usually, but not always, at square leg). However, in the modern game, there are more than two umpires two on-field umpires, a third umpire who has access to video replays, and a fourth umpire who looks after the match balls, takes out the drinks for the on-field umpires, and also arranges travel and meals for all of the umpires.
Since 2002, the ICC has two panels of umpires: namely the 11-man Elite Panel of Umpires (two of which are, in theory, appointed to each Test Match) and
the larger International Panel of Umpires.
Professional matches also have a match referee, who complements the role of the umpires. The match referee makes no decisions relevant to the outcome of
the game, but instead enforces the ICC Cricket Code of Conduct, ensuring the game is played in a reputable manner. The ICC appoints a match referee from
its Elite Panel of Referees to adjudicate Test matches and One Day Internationals.
When a ball is being bowled, one umpire (the bowler's end umpire) stands behind the stumps at the non-striker's end (that is, the end from which the ball
is being bowled), which gives him a view straight down the pitch.
The second (the striker's end umpire) takes the position that he feels gives him the best view of the play. Through long tradition, this is usually square
leg - in line with the stumps and a few yards to the batsman's leg side - hence he is sometimes known as the square leg umpire.
For certain decisions during a match, the on-field umpire may refer to the Third Umpire if there is one appointed, who has access to television replays.
The Third Umpire is most often used in the case of run-outs, where the action is too fast for the naked eye but can be also used to decide the cases of
disputed boundaries and catches, when the umpires cannot decide if the ball has struck the ground before being caught (but not to decide whether or not the
ball in fact struck the bat or gloves of a batsman). Third Umpire referrals for LBW dismissals have also been trialled in the 2002 ICC Champions Trophy is
Sri Lanka, and in the 2007 English Domestic Pro40 competition, and are currently being trialled in international matches.
1.Out: An umpire will not give a batsman out unless an appeal is made by the fielding side, though a batsman may walk if he knows himself to be out.
This is nowadays rare, especially in Tests and first-class matches for contentious decisions; however, it is the norm for a batsman to walk when he is out bowled. If the fielding side believes a batsman is out, the fielding side must appeal, by asking "How's that?", "Wot Wot" or "How was he?",
(or by any other means that either umpire deems as a method of appealing.)
The umpire's response is either to raise his index finger above his head to indicate that the batsman is out, or to clearly say "not out", which is usually accompanied with a shake of the head.
2.No-ball: The most usual causes for No Balls are foot faults or a ball passing above a batsmen's head, each of these being under the bowler's end umpire's
3.Wide:A Wide Ball is the term used to describe an illegal delivery in cricket, which is illegal due to it being "wide of the striker where he is standing and would also have passed wide of him standing in a normal guard position."
4.Dead ball: If the ball is no-longer considered in play, it is a dead ball. An umpire will signal this, by crossing and uncrossing his wrists below his waist.
5.Signals to scorers:It is important that the scorers note down the play accurately and therefore the appropriate signals will be made by the umpire when the ball is dead.
In addition to the following, the umpire repeats signals of dead ball, wide, and no-ball to the scorers. Scorers are required to acknowledge the signals
from umpires; and umpires are required to get an acknowledgement before allowing the match to proceed.
6.Four:If a batsman scores four by hitting the ball across the boundary (not by actually running them), the umpire signals this by waving his arm back and forth
in front of the chest. This signal may vary from umpire to umpire.
7.Six:A six scored by hitting the ball over the boundary is signalled by the umpire raising both hands above his head.
8.Bye:If runs are to be scored as byes, the umpire will hold up one open palm above the head.
9.Leg bye:Leg byes are signalled by the umpire touching a raised knee
10.Short run:If one of the batsman turns to complete runs after the first without grounding his person or equipment behind the popping crease, then a short run is signalled by the umpire tapping his near shoulder with his fingers and the short runs are not scored.
11.Television replay:If the umpire is unsure of a "line decision," that is, a run out or stumped decision, or if the umpire is unsure that the ball is a four, six, or neither, he may refer the matter to the Third Umpire.The signal to refer a matter is using both hands to mime a TV screen by making a box shape.
12.Penalty runs:For extreme misconduct by one team, the umpire may award five penalty runs to the other team. Placing one arm on the opposite shoulder indicates that the penalty run are awarded to the fielding team, but if the umpire taps that shoulder, the penalties are awarded to the batting team.
13.Last hour:In Test cricket and first class cricket, the last hour of the last day of play has special significance. Firstly, there is a minimum number of overs (fifteen in Tests) that must be bowled in the last hour. The umpire signals the last hour by pointing to his wrist (and the watch on it), which is raised above his head.
14.Revoke last signal:If the umpire makes an incorrect signal, he may revoke it. The cancellation is made if the umpire finds the wrong of application of the laws, such as, signalling "out" but then realizing that the other umpire signalled a no-ball. Also, an umpire may revoke if he accidentally signals a four though he
intended to signal six.
15.New Ball:In matches lasting more than two days the captain usually has the option of a new ball set number of overs (usually 80). The umpire at the bowler's end signals to the scorers that a new ball has been taken by holding the ball above his head. The scorers note the time that the new ball has been taken.
If the ball is damaged to the extent that it gives either team a disadvantage, it is replaced by a ball in similar condition (except not damaged). In 2007 the International Cricket Council (ICC) brought in a new law stipulating that, in One Day Internationals, after 35 overs have been bowled the ball must be replaced by a clean, used ball. The balls used in One Day Internationals are white, and become discoloured very easily, especially on dusty or abrasive pitches, and thus the ball change is deemed necessary to ensure that the ball is easily visible.
16. Challenge System:At the end of 2008, the ICC began trialling a challenge system in International Matches. This works as follows; When a decision has been made by the on-field umpire (either out or not-out), then either the batsmen or fielding player (depending on which way the decision went), can decide to refer the decision to the Third Umpire. This is signalled by making a "T" symbol with the arms.
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